My dear Kacvey,

Here is a quick and short retrospective on the history of the Mongols (蒙古)and their relationship with the Chinese Jin Dynasty (金王朝).

After defeating all the tribes and the Tartars in the Central Asian plateau North of China, Timujin (铁木真) achieved the unification of the Mongol people. In the spring of 1206, he was hailed and enthroned by the Chiefs of the Mongol tribes as “Great Khan” (大汗) and is known to the world history as “Genghis Khan” (成吉思汗). Once in power, Genghis Khan established a military and administrative system and a Mongolian writing system that contributed to the building of his “khanate” into a strong empire.

In the meantime, the Jin Empire continued to treat the Mongols as vassals and demanding tribute from Genghis Khan. Genghis Khan wowed to change this humiliating state of affairs.

At the end of 1208, Emperor Zhangzong (章宗) of the Jin Dynasty died, and he was succeeded by the Crown Prince Wanyan Yongji (完颜永济). Later, Wanyan Yongji sent an emissary to Mongolia bearing an edict. When the emissary bade Genghis Khan to receive the edict on his knees, Genghis Khan asked him who the new Emperor was. When he was told that Wanyan Yongji had just ascended the throne, Genghis Khan spat scornfully and said: “I thought the master of Central Plains must be of celestial caliber. I’m surprised a mediocre, incompetent man like him could qualify to the throne.” (我原来以为中原主人是天上人做的,像这种庸碌无能的人也配做皇帝?)

With that, he mounted his horse and rode off, leaving the Jin emissary behind. 70 years later, Genghis Khan’s grandson, Kubilai Khan (忽必烈汗) arrived in Khanbaliq (today’s Beijing) and established the Yuan Dynasty (元朝) which lasted until 1368.